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Oldest Extant Surveyor's Transit
1830s

"Improved Compass, with Telescope attached"
"Improved Compass, with Telescope attached, by which angles can be taken with or without the use of the needle, with perfect accuracy." This is the description Philadelphia manufacturer William J. Young used to describe the surveyor's transit he introduced in 1831, largely for use in the growing railroad network. Young's instrument was a great success, and the same basic design remained in widespread use for well over a century.

Notes
William J. Young (1800-1870)
Probably made in the 1830s and modified in the 1850s
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